Cannabigerol (CBG) is the precursor cannabinoid and is known as the mother of cannabinoids. CBGa (pre-decarboxylation) is the form found in live plants in their early stages and pre-peak maturity or ripeness. CBG can become either THCa, CBDa or another cannabinoid depending on the genetics of the plant itself. It is typically found naturally in concentrations of between 0.03% and 1.15% (dry weight), but with breeding, chemovars with 22% CBG expression have started being cultivated. Cannabigerol has a much lower boiling point than THC & CBD meaning it's rate of decarboxylation is also a lower temperature and will happen more rapidly than THC , CBD or other cannabinoids. It has shown antifungal, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory properties, it can possibly help lower blood pressure, be used as a muscle relaxant, can influence mood and may inhibit tumor cell growth. CBG does not induce a psychoactive experience like THC.
In its raw form marijuana contains the cannabinoid THCA (tetrahydrocannabinolic acid), or the precursor to active THC. Decarboxylation is required to covert THCA to THC.
Delta 9 tetrahydrocannabinol
When THCA is converted into THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), it will induce psychotropic effects or the feeling of being “high”. Today’s cannabis, rather it is black market or legal, is generally highest in THC due to breeding with the misconception that a higher THC content will produce the most desired effects. Although, with more prevalent studies on cannabinoids, breeding to produce chemovars higher in other cannabinoids or a different ratio of cannabinoids with less emphasis on THC dominance is possible and already being implemented.
Shows analgesic, antiemetic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, anticonvulsant properties. Can stimulate appetite and promote better sleep. THC will produce euphoriant affect.
Binds with CB 1 and CB 2 Receptors as an agonist mimicking our body's natural anandamide and 2AG endocannabinoids, affecting central and peripheral nervous systems.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) is another cannabinoid producing psychotropic or mind-altering affect, although only about a quarter of the effects THC is known for producing; meaning it will likely be a more mild high than THC. THCV has shown to have anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, analgesic, neuroprotective and appetite suppressant properties.
Binds with CB Receptors as both a partial agonist and antagonist, dependent on which other CB receptors, cannabinoids and terpenes are in play as well.
CBDA is the acidic form of CBD, which through decarboxylation converts to CBD. CBDA has shown to kill cancer cells
Cannabinoids are chemical compounds found in the trichomes of cannabis flowers that work with our Endocannabinoid System (ECS) by imitating the natural endocannabinoids our bodies produce. When activated, endocannabinoids maintain our internal stability and health or homeostasis; mediating the communication between cells. Homeostasis is our bodies' ability to maintain a balance even when conditions change; we need that "perfect" balance for our cell's optimal performance.
When we consume cannabis, these various phytocannabinoids bind to different receptors of our endocannabinoid system, mimicking our bodies' endocannabinoids and each having its own unique benefits and physiological effects. These effects are modulated by terpenes at the blood-brain barrier; among other factors contributing to our individual brain chemistry. It is important to remember our brain chemistry is unique to each of us, therefore the effects of cannabis are delegated by our health, DNA, family history, experiences, memories, perception, environment, diet, consumption method, tolerance, dose, prescription drugs and other substances, as well as the cannabinoid and terpene profiles consumed. This means that each individual will likely have a unique experience when consuming cannabis.
When you orally consume cannabis your body processes it through your digestive tract and metabolizes it through your liver, extending the time to affect. This process first takes place in our digestive tract, where our body makes it bioavailable for our livers. During this process a conversion is taking place and the former, Delta 9 THC is metabolized into a more bioavailable 11 Hydroxy THC before entering your bloodstream and reaching your ECS. Delta 9 THC is hydrophobic, as are most cannabinoids, therefore our body naturally processes Delta 9 THC into a more water soluble 11 Hydroxy THC. Cannabinoids are less bioavailable when consumed orally due to metabolization and second pass metabolization of ingested cannabinoids, meaning it can be an unpredictable experience due to all the factors in play. From an individual's diet, metabolism, body mass, to their body chemistry, the chemistry and quality of the cannabis consumed, environment and the form of edible, as well as dose of cannabinoids can contribute to the affect you experience. Low and slow is the best rule of thumb in oral marijuana consumption.
Synergy is when two or more compounds interact differently with our bodies than they would alone. One cannabinoid in conjunction with other cannabinoids and terpenes can have different effects than an isolated cannabinoid or terpene may present alone. This can also vary from each person and in addition of other substances, like caffeine or even some pharmaceuticals can display synergy with cannabinoids and terpenes, just like with alcohol as well. If you are going for targeted therapy using specific cannabinoids and terpenes, synergy is something to take into account when formulating your cannabinoid and terpene ratios. It may also be an important factor to look into if taking medications; you should consider discussing it with your doctor when planning to use cannabis also. Doing your own research is always a good idea too; sometimes doctors might not be aware, so it's important to self advocate as best you can. A good online resource to seek information about possible drug and cannabinoid or terpene interactions is Drugs.com and PubMed .
Cannabis has been cultivated and used for food, fiber, fuel and medicine for tens of thousands of years, having been domesticated 10,000-12,000 years after the last glacial period (Pleistocene Epoch). Evidence of cannabis pollen found in the Tibetan Plateau dates the believed origin much further back to around 28 million years ago during the later part of the Oligocene Epoch.
The later part of the Oligocene Epoch was a time when more modern ecosystems were beginning to develop, filling much of the planet with grasslands and focusing the more broad leaf, tropical forests to the equatorial belt. Angiosperms (flower/seed producing) spread over the world as subtropical forests became deciduous (leaf dropping) forests; plains and deserts became more prevalent as well. This shift in our planet's ecosystem provided excellent conditions for cannabis to evolve; allowing it to more than likely, play a major role in our own human evolution, along with other secondary plant metabolites consumed in our diets which can interact with our Central Nervous System and many other systems in our bodies.
Cannabidiol (CBD) is dominant in hemp varieties and found in small percentages in all cannabis just like THC. The CBD market has an overabundance of misinformation, inaccurate dosing and application suggestions, so it is imperative to look at the products you choose and evaluate the label claims, as well as the lab results.
CBD typically requires significantly larger doses than a cannabinoid like THC might to produce desired physiological effects, especially in oral forms.
CBD does not produce any mind-altering or psychotropic effect but therapeutically CBD has shown properties such as, being an anxiolytic, analgesic, sleep aid, increased appetite, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, anti-nausea, neuroprotective, anti-arthritic, antispasmodic and antineoplastic. CBD has shown to have greater affect in conjunction with THC.
Cannabinol (CBN) is converted from THC during aging of cannabis and/or during the decarboxylation process. CBN has displayed sedative, anti-inflammatory and antibiotic properties. Mildly psychoactive. Might help reduce spasms and/or convulsions. Excellent for sleep aid or relaxant and may help reduce nausea.
Information about CBC to come.
Delta 8 THC
Delta 8 tetrahydrocannabinol
Delta 8 THC is synthesized from other cannabinoids using controlled temperature and the addition of acidic compounds to convert and change the original molecule into that of Delta 8 or other synthesized molecules. Delta 8 is not recognized as a natural derivative of hemp, therefore does not comply under the 2018 Farm Bill Act.
Delta 10 THC
Delta 10 tetrahydrocannabinol
Delta 10 THC, like Delta 8 THC, is synthesized from other cannabinoids using controlled temperature and the addition of acidic compounds to convert and change the original molecule into that of Delta 8 or other synthesized molecules. Delta 10 is not recognized as a natural derivative of hemp, therefore does not comply under the 2018 Farm Bill Act.
11 Hydroxy THC
metabolized delta 9 THC
11 Hydroxy THC is the metabolized version of active THC. When you consume THC orally your liver metabolizes the THC into a more water soluble form, known as 11 hydroxy THC, allowing you to experience the "high" feeling associated with THC via oral consumption. 11 hydroxy can be sporadic and have differing effects per dosing, individual and encompassing many other factors as well, such as diet, environment and more. It is great for helping improve sleep, helping relieve severe pain and discomfort,
Information about CBV to come.